It was a global movement that started with a single email. In 2011, the British Columbia-based magazine Adbusters sent out a striking poster to thousands of its followers. It was a ballerina, poised on a sculpture of a bull that sits in New York's financial district. The text read: "#OccupyWallStreet September 17th. Bring tent."

Micah White was the co-creator of that first idea, which eventually saw thousands of people camped out in cities worldwide, demanding change.

Now, White's new book The End of Protest presents an even more radical vision. He challenges ways activists have pushed for change for generations, offering the provocative idea that the current strategy of protesters massing on the street and issuing demands of politicians, simply no longer works. He even takes to task the Occupy movement, which he helped create, for no longer being relevant. 

White joined As It Happens host Carol Off in studio to discuss the future of protest and what he calls a new "playbook" for social activism. Here is the full audio of their conversation. 

Excerpts from the conversation:

Micah White: I'm not disillusioned, absolutely not. On the contrary, I think that the end of protest is part of the natural cycle of social change and that we break out of it. I think that Occupy Wall Street was an example of us breaking out a period of sustained end of protest. I think that instead, I'm trying to hasten the breakout of the end of protest, by kind of naming it and pointing to it and saying "Hey, we're in a period where protest is ineffective, it's not going to be like that forever but it could be like that for a long time and we need to get out of this as quickly as possible," which is why I wrote a book about innovating new tactics of protest to break out of that. 

Carol Off: To some extent, is this book almost subversive? Are you trying to stir people? To get them to rethink activism as you have in the past, when you have told them that you have to be spurred into action. Are you trying to spur people into action with this book?

Micah White: I absolutely am trying to spur people because I believe that what's fundamentally going on within activism is a kind of laziness at the conceptual level about our theories of social change. I think people have become very lazy in thinking that, "Well, I disrupted, I blocked some streets. I got a few thousand people, maybe even a million to go into the streets. I must be victorious." No, no I think it's really important that we become more sophisticated. I think that one of the reasons why I wrote my book is so that activists will read it and they'll become much more sophisticated in their way of thinking about activism and protest so that the next time a social movement that spreads to 82 countries comes along we will have a much more sophisticated and complex base of activists who can pull off something even bigger.

This interview was originally posted on

Is protest broken? Micah White, co-creator of Occupy Wall Street, thinks so. Disruptive tactics have failed to halt the rise of Donald Trump in the upcoming US presidential election. Movements ranging from Black Lives Matter to environmentalism are leaving activists frustrated. Meanwhile, recent years have witnessed the largest protests in human history. Yet these mass mobilizations no longer change society. Now activism is at a crossroads: innovation or irrelevance.

In The End of Protest Micah White heralds the future of activism. Drawing on his unique experience with Occupy Wall Street, a contagious protest that spread to eighty-two countries, White articulates a unified theory of revolution and eight principles of tactical innovation that are destined to catalyze the next generation of social movements. 
Despite global challenges—catastrophic climate change, economic collapse and the decline of democracy—White finds reason for optimism: the end of protest inaugurates a new era of social change. On the horizon are increasingly sophisticated movements that will emerge in a bid to challenge elections, govern cities and reorient the way we live. Activists will reshape society by forming a global political party capable of winning elections worldwide. 
In this provocative playbook, White offers three bold, revolutionary scenarios for harnessing the creativity of people from across the political spectrum. He also shows how social movements are created and how they spread, how materialism limits contemporary activism, and why we must re-conceive protest in timelines of centuries, not days.
Rigorous, original and compelling, The End of Protest is an exhilarating vision of an all-encompassing revolution of revolution

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Innovative. . . . Part manifesto, part memoir, and part history of activism, The End of Protest is a radical document in every sense of the word. . . . The End of Protest encompasses so much more than reflections on a controversial movement. . . . The End of Protest is crammed so full of fascinating research, stunning language, and spirited optimism that it’s bound to make you stop and think.
— The Huffington Post